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"Summa de Arithmetica Geometria Proportioni et Proportionalita」

Pacioli, Fra Luca. Library for Humanities and Social Sciences(9-1-923)

Fra Luca Pacioli is the mathematician of Italy who was born on 1445 and died on 1517. It is told that he was friends with famous Leonardo da Vinci, so he was the person who just lived the middle of the Renaissance. This book is a main work of Pacioli. In addition to a mathematics book, it has the honor of the oldest (1494) account book in the world which was printed and published for its description about double accounting. This book called "Summa" for short is 31.5 by 22.3cm, and a one-volume book of 308 dishes. It is said that this book is the writing for the general public, because it was written in Italian not Latin which was mainly used in the publication of those days. There are two kind of version, "Columbia University library's possession version" and "Nihon University library's possession version", in the first edition. Kobe University library possession's is considered to be near with "Columbia University library possession's version".



"A treatise of commerce, wherin are shewed the commodies arising by a wel orderd, and ruled trade, such as that of the societie of merchantes adventurers is proved to bee, written principallie for the better information of those who doubt of the nevessariences of the said societie in the state of the realme of England."
1601

 Wheeler, John. Library for Humanities and Social Sciences(5-3-1832) a registration number 38367 1928.4.19 receiving

Although the centralization of administrative power of the Tudor dynasty was established in Britain at the end of the 16th century, the finances of the royal family had lapsed into the predicament because of increase in war expenditure after Hundred Years' War. For this reason, it came to turn its eyes to the commerce and export trade from which a large amount of tariff revenues could be obtained. At that time, the wool which occupied the 1st place of export in Britain was almost monopolized by Merchants of the Staple (individual merchant team). After that, the woolen textile industry developed suddenly and the export duty of it also become important for the state, but The Company of Merchant Adventurers monopolized the woolen goods export. And then, it was disputed which was more proper as an organization form of overseas trade, "Merchants of the Staple (individual merchant team)" or "The Company of Merchant Adventurers (company organization)". Thomas Milles, who was the customs inspector at the time, wrote "The customers apology" (1601) to blame The Company of Merchant Adventurers and assert the free trade. This book was written to object to him by the author who was the secretary of The Company of Merchant Adventurers. The dispute of Milles and Wheeler was developed hotly. However, a Milles' bill of the free trade was rejected in Parliament, and it was all settled to give a decision in favor of The Company of Merchant Adventurers in 1604.


"The Trades Increase."1615

Roberts, John? Library for Humanities and Social Sciences(5-3-1841) a registration number 38378 1928.4.19 receiving

The economical dispute of "whether to be a Staple system or a company organization" produced the reference of Milles and Wheeler as mentioned above. At a later time, when The East India Company (a joint-stock company system) was established, it developed into the dispute of "which is proper for long distance trade, The Company of Merchant Adventurers or The East India Company?". Since the greatest merchant vessel "Trades Increase" of The East India Company was wrecked in 1613, while the author discussed both advantages and disadvantages and accepted the former's profits, he points out the weak point of The East India Company, and he criticizes severely that the trade which The East India Company performed brought disadvantageous profits to the maritime right of Britain.


"The defence of trade : in a letter to Sir Thomas Smith Knight, Governour of the East-India Companie, etc. From one of that societie."1615

Digge, Dudley? Library for Humanities and Social Sciences(5-3-1830)

Although people blamed to The East India Company severely at that time, the author who was a director of this company wrote this book to refute it. He answered to the theory which attacked The East India Company on the grounds of a risk of the trade, an increase in vessels and mariners' damages, a reduction in maritime rights as a result, and so on. In addition, he pointed out that the amount of export of the fabrics from Britain increased by East India trade after establishment of this company, and that national profits of Britain was produced because the price of spices and other India goods fell off.


"A discourse of trade, from England unto the East-Indies : Answering to diuerse objections which are usually made against the game."1621

Mun, Thomas? Library for Humanities and Social Sciences(5-3-1840)

Author Thomas Mun was a director of The East India Company. To refute clearly the anti-East India trade theory based on the loss of the British state treasure by export of gold and silver, and other various reasons, he wrote this book. On the basis of "trade balance theory", he stated very skillfully the process that the temporary export of gold and silver resulted in more inflow of precious metals than outflow abroad.


"Free trade; or, the means to make trade florish; wherein, the causes of the decay of trade in this kingdome, are discouered, and the remedies also to remmoue the same, are represented."1622

Anon. Misselden, Edward? Library for Humanities and Social Sciences(1-10-334) 1928.4.19 receiving

This book proves that the main causes of a trade decline of Britain in the beginning of the 17th century were based on lack of money, and presents the relief measures of how for money to be enriched and to make trade prosper. Although the author asserts the "necessity for trade control", and "exclusion of monopoly" as one of them, the problem is the concept of a free trade of those days. "Freedom of trade" in a modernistic meaning did not matter in the 17th century. The need of a certain control made it possible to accept generally that a company organization should be chosen. The purpose of the "free trade bill" which was mentioned above was not for removing restrictions of as opposed to commercial free competition, but for opening a company to the individuals who wanted to participate in it. Public blame concentrated on "a monopoly of a company" which obstructed individual participation. Thus, "exclusion of a monopoly" was the essence of the free trade theory in the early stages of modern times. This Misselden's book has an important meaning in terms of understanding the development of a free trade concept. However, this book was refuted by the work of Malynes, The maintenance of free trade according to... in the same year.


"The circle of commerce : or the ballance of trade, in defence of free trade : opposed to Malynes little fish and his great whale, and poized against them in the scale. Wherein also, exchanges in generall are considered and therein the whole trade of this Kingdome with forraine countries, is digested into a ballance of trade, for the benefite of the publique; necessary for the present and future times."1623

Misselden, Edward? Library for Humanities and Social Sciences(5-3-1833) a registration number 38368 1928.4.19 receiving

This book is the answer to the above-mentioned work of Malynes. Author Misselden not only refuted the theory of the foreign exchange of Malynes, but pointed out the profits of golden export based on a trade balance theory and protected the East India Company. It is because he came to have a special relation with the East India Company that the author who once had made export of the gold by the East India Company the cause of a trade decline changed in this way. It is notable as an example of controversialists' arguments of those days which were often changed according to an individual status. It can be said that both Misselden's documents are rare ones as old edition books on economics.


"The center of the circle of commerce : or a refutation of treatise, instituled the circle of commerce, of the ballance of trade, lately published by E.M."1623

Malynes, Gerard Library for Humanities and Social Sciences(5-3-1834) a registration number 38369 1928.4.19 receiving

This book is a counterargument to Misselden. The author repeated the theory of foreign exchange and said that the profits of the golden export which Misselden asserted were only illusions after all. Author Malynes who was a thorough bullionist concluded that lack of money was just the origin of all social wrong, and advocated the revival of the Staple system as only practical relief measures.


"The treasure of traffike : or a discourse of forraigne trade. Wherein is shewed the benefit and commoditie arising to a common-wealth of Kingdome by the skilfull merchant, and by a well ordered commerce and regular traffike. Dedicated to the high court of parlament now assembled."1641

Roberts, Lewes Library for Humanities and Social Sciences(5-3-1853) a registration number 38412 1928.4.19 receiving

The author who was the member of the East India Company and the Levant company wrote this book to explain a commercial function and advocate practical method for developing it, for example, free export of gold and silver, reduction of custom duties and exclusion of monopoly and individual patent right. He accepted the need of the national control to commerce, therefore protected the trade company which had the restrictions of area rather than each trader as a commercial organization form.


"The key of wealth; or, a new way , for improving of trade,:lawfull,easie, safe and effectuall."1650

Potter, William? Library for Humanities and Social Sciences(5-3-1845) a registration number 38387 1928.4.19 receiving

Although this book was published anonymously, author Potter's intention was to give how the commercial development was dependent on the quick circulation of goods. He argued that it was required for a quick commercial transaction to circulate the notes on security of land, house or remarkable capital and to found a company of the reliable merchant who should have responsibility in the note published in the name of itself. It is important from the viewpoint of the theorys' history that he turned attention to the increase in circulating capital and set the new element as the object of economic argument.


"Sir William Petty's quantulumcungue concerning money 1682: to the Lord Marquess of Halyfax."1695

Library for Humanities and Social Sciences(5-1-88) a registration number 9383 1917.6.16 receiving

This is an acknowledged booklet as a global rare book.


"Proposals for raising a coledge of industry of all useful trade and husbandry."1699

John, Belleers Library for Humanities and Social Sciences(5-3-1855) a registration number 38418 1928.4.19 receiving

This is one of the masterpieces of the author who is the social thinker called ein wahres Phaenomen on the economics history by Carl Marx.


references: Minami, Yuzo "Kohan Keizaisho Kanken" <Kobe Shodai Shinbun 1935.3.20>